Graham Westmacott CFA

Portfolio Manager

Susan Daley CFA

Associate Portfolio Manager
  • T519.880.0888
  • 1.877.517.0888
  • F519.880.9997
  • The Marsland Centre
  • 20 Erb St. W,
    Suite 506
  • Waterloo, Ontario N2L 1T2

Where should my Investments Go: RRSP or TFSA?

Now that we know the basics of how RRSP’s (Registered Retirement Savings Plans) and TFSA’s (Tax Free Savings Accounts) work from a tax and investment standpoint, there is an important decision to make prior to selecting any investments. Should you contribute to an RRSP or TFSA?

This decision will come down to three factors:

  1. What is the purpose of the investments?
  2. What is your own saving and spending behaviour?
  3. What are your current taxes and what are your expected future taxes?

I outline how these three factors come into play when deciding whether to use the RRSP or the TFSA to invest your money in the video below:


Have you started saving for retirement? Which accounts are you using to save and invest?

If you have any questions or comments, please leave them below.

By: Susan Daley | 0 comments

Getting Real with Real Estate: Part II

What is the role of REITs in an investment portfolio?

In a previous blog we examined direct investment in real estate as one option for investors wanting real estate exposure. Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) are an alternative to directly holding real estate, but is one a substitute for the other?

REITs allow a partial ownership of a number of individual real estate properties and many REITs are publicly traded. A REIT is a mutual fund trust, so that investors are unitholders in the trust, and the trust holds a passive interest in a portfolio of real properties. Three advantages REITs have over direct ownership of properties are diversification, liquidity and regular distributions. For companies the primary reason for structuring as a REIT is that distributions are taxed only in the hands of the unit holders. In Canada to qualify as a REIT, the trust must receive 90% of its income from passive revenue, primarily rental income. The absence of tax at the trust level makes REIT investments particularly attractive where tax is deferred (RRSPs) or tax free (TFSAs). From the perspective of the REIT owners, the structure accesses pools of capital from private investors that would otherwise be unavailable.

REIT returns are highly correlated with equities1 (correlation 0.63), particularly small company equities (correlation 0.74) when the correlation is measured over quarterly data. This contrasts with the short-term behaviour of direct real estate investments which have a correlation with equities of close to zero. Given that both are means of investing in property it would be reasonable to assume that the performance of both is driven by the same underlying economic forces, so the discrepancy between direct real state and REITs might be viewed as a puzzle. The puzzle is partially resolved if we recall from Part 1 that direct real estate returns are artificially smooth. Over any 3 year period the performance of direct real estate and REITs is increasing correlated (0.43) but falls short of unity, suggesting other factors at work other than the artificially smooth nature of direct real estate returns.

We examined the performance of REITs based on U.S. data, as illustrated in the table below.
Index performance for period Jan-1979 to Oct 2016.

Index performance for period Jan-1979 to Oct 2016.

  Annualized Return % Annualized Standard Deviation %
Dow Jones U.S. Select REIT Index 12.72 17.29
Russell 2000 Index 11.68 17.68
Russell 3000 Index 11.95 13.82
Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Government Bond Index 7.43 8.16

Source: PWL Capital, Dimensional Fund Advisors

The return and volatility of the REIT index is closest to the Russell 2000 Index which is an index of smaller U.S. companies. REITs are definitely not “as safe as houses”. One reason for the, perhaps surprising, volatility of REIT returns is that U.S. REITs have debt ratios of 30-40%. A more detailed analysis2 reveals that only 55% of REIT returns can be explained by assuming they behave like the stock market and other factors are at play that justify treating REITs as a separate asset class from equities. The high leverage of REITs leads to a concern that REITs might be vulnerable to rising interest rates. The same study found no relationship between the performance of REITs and contemporaneous interest rates.

To summarize:

  • Raw data from direct real estate investing underestimates the investment risk because reported data from direct real under-reports price volatility.
  • Direct real estate investments and REITs behave differently, especially over periods of year or less.
  • The risk and return of REITs are more like equities than direct real estate, in part because REIT performance includes the impact of leverage.
  • REITs are a useful diversifier in a portfolio, as a significant portion of the variations in REIT returns are not linked to equity market variations.

1 Unless indicated otherwise, much of the information in this blog is drawn from two sources: Asset Management: a systematic approach to factor investing, Andrew Ang (2014) and Expected Returns: An Investor’s Guide to Harvesting Market Rewards, Antti Ilmanen (2011).

2 DFA Quarterly Institutional Review, Q2 2015, Real Estate Investment Trusts (available on request).


By: Graham Westmacott | 4 comments

Rethinking Registered Retirement Savings Plans (RRSP’s)

The Registered Retirement Savings Plan (RRSP) is an account recognized by the Canadian government to have special tax treatment. Contributions from the RRSP can be made with pre-tax dollars (i.e. you aren’t taxed on income that you contribute to the RRSP) and any growth within the account is not taxed. The money is taxed however when you pull it out, as regular income in the owners hands, just like employment income is taxed. As you work, you earn more room to be able to contribute to your RRSP at a rate of 18% of your previous year’s income. Contribution room can be carried forward and used at any point before you turn 72. You can look up your current contribution room on CRA’s MyAccount.

The RRSP can be a powerful tool to save for retirement. By reducing your taxes when you contribute, it allows you to save more money initially for retirement which can then compound tax free for years. The caveat though is that you have to use it correctly and actually save more rather than viewing any tax refund as a windfall to spend. I outline how you should be using the RRSP to maximize your savings along with some of the common pitfalls when using the RRSP in my video below:


If you have any questions about RRSP’s or saving and investing money, leave a comment below.

By: Susan Daley | 0 comments